Published Literature & Clinical Studies

MDT References

  1. Anderson I. Debridement methods in wound care. Nurs Stand. 2006 Feb 22-28;20(24):65-6, 68, 70 passim. PMID: 16526165
  2. Armstrong DG, Salas P, Short B, Martin BR, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Maggot therapy in "lower-extremity hospice" wound care: fewer amputations and more antibiotic-free days. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005 May-Jun;95(3):254-7. PMID: 15901812
  3. Armstrong DG, Mossel J, Short B, Nixon BP, Knowles EA, Boulton AJ. Maggot debridement therapy: a primer. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug;92(7):398-401. PMID: 12122127
  4. Attinger CE, Janis JE, Steinberg J, Schwartz J, Al-Attar A, Couch K. Clinical approach to wounds: debridement and wound bed preparation including the use of dressings and wound-healing adjuvants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jun;117(7 Suppl):72S-109S. PMID: 16799376
  5. Baer WS. The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot (larva of the blow fly). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1931;13:438–475.
  6. Ballard K, Baxter H. Developments in wound care for difficult to manage wounds. Br J Nurs. 2000 Apr 13-26;9(7):405-8, 410, 412. PMID: 11111435
  7. Beasley WD, Hirst G. Making a meal of MRSA-the role of biosurgery in hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 2004 Jan;56(1):6-9. PMID: 14706264
  8. Bell NJ, Thomas S. Use of sterile maggots to treat panniculitis in an aged donkey. Vet Rec. 2001 Dec 22-29;149(25):768-70. PMID: 11808664
  9. Bonn D. Maggot therapy: an alternative for wound infection. Lancet. 2000 Sep 30;356(9236):1174. PMID: 11030307
  10. Calianno C, Jakubek P. Wound bed preparation: laying the foundation for treating chronic wounds, part I. Nursing. 2006 Feb;36(2):70-1. PMID: 16462279
  11. Cerovský V, Zdárek J, Fucík V, Monincová L, Voburka Z, Bém R. Lucifensin, the long-sought antimicrobial factor of medicinal maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67(3):455-66. Epub 2009 Nov 18. PMID: 19921400
  12. Church J. Biosurgery in wound healing. J Wound Care. 1996 Feb;5(2):51. PMID: 8697131
  13. Church JC. Re: Bleeding complications in patients treated with maggot debridement therapy, Steenvoorde P and Oskam J, IJLEW 2005;4(1):57-58. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Mar;4(1):59. PMID: 15860454
  14. Church JC, Courtenay M. Maggot debridement therapy for chronic wounds. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Jun;1(2):129-34. Erratum in: Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Sep;1(3):213. PMID: 15871963
  15. Claxton MJ, Armstrong DG, Short B, Vazquez JR, Boulton AJ. 5 questions--and answers--about maggot debridement therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2003 Mar-Apr;16(2):99-102. PMID: 12690234
  16. Dumville JC, Worthy G, Bland JM, Cullum N, Dowson C, Iglesias C, Mitchell JL, Nelson EA, Soares MO, Torgerson DJ; VenUS II team. Larval therapy for leg ulcers (VenUS II): randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009; 19;338:b773. PMID: 19304577
  17. Dunn C, Raghavan U, Pfleiderer AG. The use of maggots in head and neck necrotizing fasciitis. J Laryngol Otol. 2002 Jan;116(1):70-2. PMID: 11860662
  18. Evans P. Larvae therapy and venous leg ulcers: reducing the 'yuk factor'. J Wound Care. 2002 Nov;11(10):407-8. PMID: 12494833
  19. Fitzpatrick M. Tiny "surgeons" prove surprisingly effective. JAMA. 2000 Nov 8;284(18):2306-7. PMID: 11066163
  20. Husain ZS, Fallat LM. Maggot therapy for wound debridement in a traumatic foot-degloving injury: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003 Nov-Dec;42(6):371-6. PMID: 14688781
  21. Jarvis A. Maggot therapy. Lancet. 2000 Dec 9;356(9246):2016.PMID: 11130559
  22. Jones M, Thomas S. Larval therapy. Nurs Stand. 2000 Feb 2-8;14(20):47-51; quiz 53-4. Review. PMID: 11209358
  23. Jukema GN, Menon AG, Bernards AT, Steenvoorde P, Taheri Rastegar A, van Dissel JT. Amputation-sparing treatment by nature: "surgical" maggots revisited. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 15;35(12):1566-71. Epub 2002 Dec 2. PMID: 12471580
  24. Knowles A, Findlow A, Jackson N. Management of a diabetic foot ulcer using larval therapy. Nurs Stand. 2001 Oct 24-30;16(6):73-6. PMID: 11977731
  25. Krajacic A. Consider using maggots. Todays Surg Nurse. 1998 May-Jun;20(3):28-32. PMID: 10026636
  26. Mumcuoglu KY. Clinical applications for maggots in wound care. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2(4):219-27. Review. PMID: 11705249
  27. Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I. Maggot therapy for the treatment of intractable wounds. Int J Dermatol. 1999 Aug;38(8):623-7. PMID: 10487456
  28. Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I. Maggot therapy for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 1998 Nov;21(11):2030-1. PMID: 9802765
  29. Namias N, Varela JE, Varas RP, Quintana O, Ward CG. Biodebridement: a case report of maggot therapy for limb salvage after fourth-degree burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000 May-Jun;21(3):254-7. PMID: 10850908
  30. Nigam Y, Bexfield A, Thomas S, Ratcliffe NA. Maggot Therapy: The Science and Implication for CAM Part II-Maggots Combat Infection. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Sep;3(3):303-8. PMID: 16951714
  31. Nigam Y, Bexfield A, Thomas S, Ratcliffe NA. Maggot Therapy: The Science and Implication for CAM Part I-History and Bacterial Resistance. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):223-7. PMID: 16786052
  32. Pechter EA and Sherman RA: Maggot therapy: The Medical Metamorphosis. Plast Reconstruct Surg. 72 (4): 567-570. 1983.
  33. Preuss SF, Stenzel MJ, Esriti A. The successful use of maggots in necrotizing fasciitis of the neck: a case report. Head Neck. 2004 Aug;26(8):747-50. PMID: 15287043
  34. Rojo S, Geraghty S. Hemophilia and maggots: from hospital admission to healed wound. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004 Apr;50(4):30, 32, 34. PMID: 15259799
  35. Scavee V, Polis X, Schoevaerdts JC. Maggot therapy: many hands make light work. Acta Chir Belg. 2003 Aug;103(4):405-7. PMID: 14524161
  36. Sealby N. The use of maggot therapy in the treatment of a malignant foot wound. Br J Community Nurs. 2004 Mar;9(3):S16-9. PMID: 15029003
  37. Semple L. Use of larval therapy to treat a diabetic patient's pressure ulcer. Br J Nurs. 2003 Aug;12(15 Suppl):S6-13. PMID: 12937380
  38. Sherman R. Age-old therapy gets new approval. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):12-5. PMID: 15716781
  39. Sherman RA, Morrison S, Ng D. Maggot debridement therapy for serious horse wounds - A survey of practitioners. Vet J. 2006 Jul 8; PMID: 16831562
  40. Sherman RA, Stevens H, Ng D, Iversen E. Treating wounds in small animals with maggot debridement therapy: A survey of practitioners. Vet J. 2005 Dec 27.PMID: 16386439
  41. Sherman RA, Shimoda KJ. Presurgical maggot debridement of soft tissue wounds is associated with decreased rates of postoperative infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 1;39(7):1067-70. Epub 2004 Sep 1. PMID: 15472863
  42. Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for treating diabetic foot ulcers unresponsive to conventional therapy. Diabetes Care. 2003 Feb;26(2):446-51. PMID: 12547878
  43. Sherman RA. Maggot versus conservative debridement therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair Regen. 2002 Jul-Aug;10(4):208-14. PMID: 12191002
  44. Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for foot and leg wounds. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Jun;1(2):135-42. PMID: 15871964
  45. Sherman RA, Sherman J, Gilead L, Lipo M, Mumcuoglu KY. Maggot debridement therapy in outpatients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Sep;82(9):1226-9. PMID: 11552195
  46. Sherman RA, Hall MJ, Thomas S. Medicinal maggots: an ancient remedy for some contemporary afflictions. Annu Rev Entomol. 2000;45:55-81. Review. PMID: 10761570
  47. Sherman RA. A new dressing design for use with maggot therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Aug;100(2):451-6. PMID: 9252615
  48. Sherman RA, Tran JM, Sullivan R. Maggot therapy for venous stasis ulcers. Arch Dermatol. 1996 Mar;132(3):254-6. PMID: 8607628
  49. Sherman RA, Wyle FA, Thrupp L. Effects of seven antibiotics on the growth and development of Phaenicia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae. J Med Entomol. 1995 Sep;32(5):646-9. PMID: 7473619
  50. Sherman RA, Wyle F, Vulpe M. Maggot therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients. J Spinal Cord Med. 1995 Apr;18(2):71-4. PMID: 7640976
  51. Steenvoorde P, Buddingh TJ, van Engeland A, Oskam J. Maggot therapy and the "yuk" factor: an issue for the patient? Wound Repair Regen. 2005 May-Jun;13(3):350-2. PMID: 15953056
  52. Steenvoorde P, Oskam J. Use of larval therapy to combat infection after breast-conserving surgery. J Wound Care. 2005 May;14(5):212-3. PMID: 15909436
  53. Steenvoorde P, Oskam J. Bleeding complications in patients treated with maggot debridement therapy. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Mar;4(1):57-8. PMID: 15860453
  54. Steenvoorde P, Jukema GN. The antimicrobial activity of maggots: in-vivo results. J Tissue Viability. 2004 Jul;14(3):97-101. PMID: 15709356
  55. Steenvoorde P, Jukema GN. Can laboratory investigations help us to decide when to discontinue larval therapy? J Wound Care. 2004 Jan;13(1):38-40. PMID: 14969027
  56. Summers JB, Kaminski J. Maggot debridement therapy for diabetic necrotic foot. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Dec 15;68(12):2327, 2330.PMID: 14705752
  57. Summers JB, Kaminski J. Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) for burn wounds. Burns. 2003 Aug;29(5):501-2. PMID: 12880736
  58. Teich S, Myers RA. Maggot therapy for severe skin infections. South Med J. 1986;79(9):1153-5.
  59. Thomas S. The use of sterile maggots in wound management. Nurs Times. 2002 Sep 3-9;98(36):45-6. PMID: 12244669
  60. Thomas S, Jones M, Wynn K, Fowler T. The current status of maggot therapy in wound healing. Br J Nurs. 2001 Dec;10(22 Suppl):S5-8, S10, S12. PMID: 11842471
  61. Thomas S, Jones M. Wound debridement: evaluating the costs. Nurs Stand. 2001 Feb 14-20;15(22):59-61. Review. PMID: 12211948
  62. Thomas S, Andrews AM, Hay NP, Bourgoise S. The anti-microbial activity of maggot secretions: results of a preliminary study. J Tissue Viability. 1999 Oct;9(4):127-32. PMID: 10808842
  63. Thomas S, Andrews A, Jones M, Church J. Maggots are useful in treating infected or necrotic wounds. BMJ. 1999 Mar 20;318(7186):807-8. PMID: 10082718
  64. Vistnes LM, Lee R, Ksander GA. Proteolytic activity of blowfly larvae secretions in experimental burns. Surgery. 1981 Nov;90(5):835-41. PMID: 7029766
  65. Wayman J, Nirojogi V, Walker A, Sowinski A, Walker MA. The cost effectiveness of larval therapy in venous ulcers. J Tissue Viability. 2000 Jul;10(3):91-4. Erratum in: J Tissue Viability 2001 Jan;11(1):51. PMID: 11299572
  66. Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval therapy--an effective method of ulcer debridement. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Mar;28(2):134-7. PMID: 12653696
  67. Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval therapy for a leg ulcer with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Derm Venereol. 1999 Jul;79(4):320-1. PMID: 10429993
  68. Wollina U, Kinscher M, Fengler H. Maggot therapy in the treatment of wounds of exposed knee prostheses. Int J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;44(10):884-6. PMID: 16207200
  69. Wollina U, Liebold K, Schmidt WD, Hartmann M, Fassler D. Biosurgery supports granulation and debridement in chronic wounds—clinical data and remittance spectroscopy measurement. Int J Dermatol. 2002 Oct;41(10):635-9. PMID: 12390183




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